Available Now

Order now and be among the first to learn from Alternative Investing expert Bob Rice. Begin building your alternatives portfolio today! Order from Amazon.com, Barnes & Noble or 800-CEO-Reads

Back to Blog

The Alternative Answer Daily

Calculating Required Rate of Return RRR

The reasoning behind these two concepts is related to the inclusion (or exclusion) of the rate of inflation. When the economy slows and threatens to dip into recession, the central bank may opt to lower interest rates and boost the amount of money flowing into the economy. Treasury bill is a useful proxy because the market considers there to be virtually no chance of the U.S. https://personal-accounting.org/risk-free-rate-of-return/ government defaulting on its obligations. In practice, a truly risk-free rate does not exist because even the safest investments carry some small amount of risk. Adam Hayes, Ph.D., CFA, is a financial writer with 15+ years Wall Street experience as a derivatives trader. Besides his extensive derivative trading expertise, Adam is an expert in economics and behavioral finance.

  • The required rate of return is a difficult metric to pinpoint because individuals who perform the analysis will have different estimates and preferences.
  • The U.S. Treasury 10-year bond and three-month T-bill meet expectations in the sense that the return is 100% predictable.
  • The term risk-free doesn’t exactly guarantee that the asset won’t default.
  • Since the risk-free asset used is so short-term, it is not applicable to either absolute or relative risk.
  • So securities that tend to be riskier, such as stocks, have to improve performance in a rising rate environment to hold investors’ interest.
  • While this concept is theoretical, it’s helpful for understanding how investment risk works and how to minimize it in your portfolio.

Treasury bill (T-bill) as a proxy for the short-term risk-free rate as they have virtually zero risk of default. The risk-free rate of return represents interest on the invested money you can expect over a certain period from investments that carry no risk. The risk-free rate of return is a theoretical concept that traders use to define an investment that guarantees returns without bearing any risks. Alternatively, an investment that will always be profitable and never incur losses. The risk free rate is minimum return an investor is willing to accept at an investment level.


However, government-issued bonds are logically about as close to being risk-free as an asset could get, as governments could simply print more money if necessary. For corporate valuations, the majority of risk/return models begin with the presumption that there is a so-called “risk free rate”. This analytical tool is used to evaluate the risk-adjusted returns on a single security or an entire investment portfolio. For both CAPM and the Sharpe ratio, the higher the ratio, the better the investment. That’s a hefty market, considering it’s almost two-thirds the market capitalization of the S&P 500, which was $38.29 trillion in March 2022.

  • Therefore, she decides to use the CAPM model to determine whether the stock is riskier than it should be in relation to the risk-free rate.
  • Diversification is done by investing in different types of assets that are unlikely to perform at the same time.
  • The required rate of return (RRR) is the minimum amount of profit (return) an investor will seek or receive for assuming the risk of investing in a stock or another type of security.
  • Furthermore, the market for US treasury instruments is intense and liquid, meaning it is a safe and sound investment environment.

That type of conservative asset allocation can help insulate you against losses in your portfolio. But playing it too safe with your investments could cost you if your holdings aren’t generating enough returns to help you meet your goals. There has been much debate on normalized risk-free rates, with Duff & Phelps regularly publishing reports on their recommended equity risk premium (ERP), which uses a normalized version of the risk-free rate. If the prevailing interest rates in the market are at historically low levels, DCF-derived valuations tend to be higher since the discount rate is going to be lower from the decline in the risk-free rate. In effect, the risk-free rate has broad implications on how investors allocate their capital based on prevailing market conditions.

Is It Really Free of Risk?

Next, you can evaluate investments of different durations to see if a particular duration will offer you returns that help keep pace with or outpace inflation for the investment term. In low-inflation economies, zero or near-zero interest rates translate to real risk-free rates that are low. For example, if the inflation rate was a nominal 2.5% and you were considering that same 12-month CD at 2.5% above, your real risk-free rate would be zero, making it a break-even investment.

What Does Risk Free Rate of Return Mean?

You could use the yield to maturity (YTM) of a 10-year Treasury bill; let’s say it’s 4%. Next, take the expected market risk premium for the stock, which can have a wide range of estimates. The risk-free rate is generally defined as the (more or less guaranteed) rate of return on short-term U.S. Treasury bills because the value of this type of security is extremely stable and the return is backed by the U.S. government. So, the risk of losing invested capital is virtually zero, and a certain amount of profit is guaranteed. Risk-free rate of return refers to the funds to invest in a no-risk of investments that can get yields.

Beta Coefficient

Risk premium compares the expected return of an investment to the return of a risk-free investment. The equity risk premium helps investors evaluate potential investments based on the “extra” return that they are receiving for the incremental risk above the rf rate. The risk-free rate is theoretically hypothetical because every investment comes with some sort of risk; however, when investing in U.S. Treasuries, which are considered risk-free, one can be comfortable that there is no risk because the U.S. government, which is a stable economy and nation, backs these investments. The risk with longer-term Treasuries is that they may not outpace inflation, causing the investor to lose money. This article looks at the risk-free security in theory and in reality (as a government security), evaluating how truly risk-free it is.

Year Treasury Rate (I:10YTCMR)

However, because it’s considered “risk-free”, it’s used as a benchmark to measure the performance of other investments. A risk-free rate of return is often used in conjunction with another type of return (such as the market’s average return) to calculate a return that offers exposure to both risk and reward at the same time. Even though risk-free rate of return is a theoretical number, rather than an actual one, it still has value when making investment decisions. By using the risk-free rate of return as a guide, you can better construct a portfolio that aligns with your risk tolerance, risk capacity and overall objectives. So for example, a diversified portfolio might include a mix of stocks, bonds, cash and real statement. But within each of those categories, you can diversify further to manage risk.

Since investors can receive higher returns from risk-free assets, riskier assets are expected to result in higher returns to meet the new standards set by the market for the returns of riskier assets. The real risk-free rate is the required return on zero-risk financial instruments with the rate of inflation taken into account. Investors seeking safety in investments during volatile markets could do well with U.S. Treasury securities with longer or shorter durations stand in for the risk-free rate. Typically, a treasury maturity is chosen that matches the investing time horizon of the asset that’s being analyzed. The nominal risk-free rate is typically the current yield of the 3-month T-bill without taking into account the impact of inflation.

Treasury will demand a higher level of return than the risk-free return. The difference between the return earned and the risk-free return represents the risk premium on the security. In other words, the return on a risk-free asset is added to a risk premium to measure the total expected return on investment.